Founded in 1929, the School of Mathematical Sciences (SMS) of Anhui University, is one of the earliest founded mathematical departments in China, which has been named Department of Mathematics and School of Mathematics and Computational Science before. In 1958, the Department of Mathematics is one of the first founded departments when Anhui University was re-established in Hefei City. The SMS has a lot of excellent alumni, such as Mu Mu (the member of China Academy of Sciences), Li-Xing Zhu, Jia-Yu Li and Yuan-Qing Xia (all supported by the Cheung Kong Scholars Programme and the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars).

The SMS has the Center of College Mathematics Teaching, Department of Pure Mathematics, Department of Applied Mathematics, Department of Information and Computational Sciences, Department of Probability and Statistics and Institute of Mathematical Research.

The graduate programs of SMS include Ph.D. (Master) Program of Mathematics, Ph.D. (Master) Program of Statistics. The undergraduate programs of SMS include Program of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Program of Information and Computational Sciences, Program of Statistics, Program of Applied Statistics and Program of Financial Mathematics. The SMS now has more than 800 undergraduate students, 150 Master students and 20 Ph.D. students.

The SMS has the Postdoctoral Programme of Mathematics, the positions of Cheung Kong Scholars and Wan Jiang Scholars. The Pure Mathematics/ Probability and Statistics is one of the Anhui Provincial Key Disciplines. The Mathematics and Applied Mathematics teaching team is the National Teaching Team.

The SMS has 98 faculties, including 19 professors, 31 associated professors, and 55 people with Ph.D. degrees. We have 2 foreign experts, 3 foreign postdoctors, 2 part-time experts, and 4 visiting scholars. We have 1 people titled National Excellent Teacher, 1 people supported by the program of New Century Excellent Talents in University, 9 people titled the (or the candidate of) Academic and Technical Leader of Anhui Province, 14 Ph.D. students’ supervisors and 43 Master students' supervisors.